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Primary education
Primary education

Early childhood

From birth until the age of 5, Indonesian children do not generally have access to formal education. From the age of 5 to 6 or 7, they attend kindergarten (Taman Kanak-kanak). This education is not compulsory for Indonesian citizen, as most of the intention of this is to prepare them for primary school. These days, most kindergartens are owned by a private school, with more than 49 thousands kindergartens, 99.35% of the total kindergartens in Indonesia. The kindergarten years are usually divided into 2, "Class A" and "Class B" with a year of each class.

Elementary School

Children ages 7-12 attend Sekolah Dasar (SD) (literally Elementary School). This level of education is compulsory for all Indonesian citizens, based on the national constitution. Quite different with kindergartens in Indonesia, the most elementary schools are owned by the government, or public school, with 93% of all elementary schools[2]. Similar to education in the U.S. and Australia, all students have to study for 6 years to pass this level, although some schools have offered an acceleration program, where students can finish the elementary school for just 5 years. This can be done with students with a higher intelligence quotient or IQ.

Middle School

Middle School, generally known by the acronym 'SMP' (Sekolah Menengah Pertama) is part of primary education in Indonesia. Students attend Middle School for three years from the age of 13-15. After three years of schooling and graduation, students may move on to High School or College, or cease formal education. There are around 22,000 schools in Indonesia with a balanced ownership between public and private sector

High School

Based on the national constitution, Indonesian citizens do not have to attend high school as the citizens only require 9 years of education. This is also reflected by the number of high schools in Indonesia, with just slightly below 9,000 schools

Tertiary education

After graduation from High school or college, students may attend a university.